Peer Assisted Learning 19th February '08

Today in P.A.L we were looking at bibliography referencing to support our essays. There is a specific style of presentation of bibliographical research called the 'Harvard System' This doesn't just include books but also websites

Below is an good selection of examples of how to use the system:

The bibliography at the end of your piece of work should list all the sources cited in your text.

The Harvard System requires that the list is alphabetical by authors' name.

If there is an instance where the same author has published more than one item in a year use lower case letters to distinguish between them e.g. 1998a, 1998b. Include all types of source, i.e. internet, books, film, in one alphabetical list as shown below.


Allen, W. (1986). Hannah and her sisters. [VHS Video tape]. USA: MGM Home Entertainment.

Association of Illustrators. (2000). Images 24: the best of British illustration. Crans-Pres-Celigny: Rotovision.

Craik, J. (2003). The cultural politics of the uniform. Fashion

theory: the journal of dress, body and culture. Vol. 7 No. 2. pp.127-147.

Ehrenreich, B., Hess, E. and Jacobs, G (1997). Beatlemania: a sexually defiant consumer culture? In: Gelder, K. and Thornton, S. (eds.) The subcultures reader. London: Routledge. pp. 523-536.

Imperial War Museum. (n.d.). Recollections of war. [Internet]. London: Imperial War Museum. Available from: [Accessed 6 August 2003]

Longbridge, J. (2001). Opera South Public Relations Officer. Telephone conversation with author. 5 May.

Kelly, M. (1997). Imaging desire. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Kotler, P. et al. (2002). Principles of marketing. 3rd ed. Harlow: Pearson Education.

Kuspit, D. (2000). Antoni Tapies. Artforum. [Internet]. April 2000. Available from: [Accessed 6 August 2003]

Martin Luther King Jr. (n.d.). [Online image]. Available from: [Accessed 7 August 2003]

McMaster, B. (2003). Interview by Mariella Frostrup. The Radio 2 Arts Programme. BBC Radio 2. 8 August. [Radio]

Thompson, J. (ed.) (1996). Towards a theory of the image. Maastrict: Jan van Eyck Akademie.

Vanderbilt, T. (2003) The new mobility. I.D.: The international design magazine. May. pp. 34-41.

So for a book its:

Author. (Year). Title Subtitle. (if applicable)
Publishing City: Publisher PP.00-00

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